Chemical Process Diagram
- Chemical process industry (CPI) and chemical engineers
- Nature of chemical processes:
- Highly reactive, toxic, corrosive
- Severe operating conditions (high T and P)
- Errors and miscommunications can cause:
- Explosions, environmental damage
THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAY OF COMMUNICATING INFORMATION ABOUT A PROCESS IS THROUGH THE USE OF FLOW DIAGRAMS
// Stages of a Process Project
Engineering → Construction → Commissioning → Start-up → Normal Operation
- During this operating period, many unforeseen changes are likely to take place. The quality of the raw materials used by the plant may change, product specifications may be raised, production rates may need to be increased, the equipment performance will decrease because of wear, the development of new and better catalysts will occur, the costs of utilities will change, new environmental regulations may be introduced, or improved equipment may appear on the market.
- As a results, plant operations must be modified and flow diagrams are updated accordingly.
Design is an evolutionary process:
Input/output diagram → Generic diagram → BFD → PFD → P&ID
• Input/output is a crude block flow diagram in which only feed and product streams are identified.
• Generic Diagram Break the process into its basic elements such as reaction and separation , and recycle sections.
• BFD include the material balance calculations.
• PFD complete mass and energy balance and preliminary equipment specs.
• P&ID includes the mechanical and instrumentation details.