Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress


Abdulaziz July 8, 2020

// Hydrocarbons

  • Alkanes (paraffins)
    • Saturated HC
    • Classified into 3 categories;
      • Straight chain HC
      • Branched alkanes – with alkyl substituent
      • isoparaffin – methyl group branching from carbon no 2
Pentane Molecule
  • Cycloparaffins
    • Saturated cyclic HC
    • E.g. cyclopentane, cyclohexane
    • Normally present in light naphtha and heavy naphtha
    • Important precursors for aromatic HC :
      • cyclohexane
      • substituted cyclopentane
      • sustituted cyclohexane
  • Note: Naphthenic compounds are sometimes called naphthenes, cycloparaffins or hydrogenated benzenes. Naphtha is a refined petrokeum fraction that contains a high percentage of these types of hydrocarbons
Benzene Molecule
  • Aromatic compound
    • Lower members of aromatic compounds are present in small amounts in crude oils and light petroleum fractions.
    • The simplest mononuclear aromatic compound is benzene (C6H6).
    • Toluene (C7H8) and xylene (C8H10) are also mononuclear aromatic compounds found in variable amounts in crude oils.
    • Benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) are important petrochemical intermediates as well as valuable gasoline components.
    • Separating BTX aromatics from crude oil distillates is not feasible because they are present in low concentrations. Enriching a naphtha fraction with these aromatics is possible through a catalytic reforming process.
Indole Molecule
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